Paediatric nephrology refers to the treatment of urinary tract and kidney diseases in babies, children and adolescents. This includes acute and chronic dialysis, as well as kidney transplantation.
It is possible for babies to be born with renal defects and obstructive urinary tract abnormalities. Some of the most common kidney diseases in children include nephrotic syndrome, post-infectious kidney disease and obstructive urinary tract abnormalities. These diseases be caused by infection, or genetic, immune or congenital abnormalities.
Some of the most common symptoms of kidney disease include decreased amounts of urine, swelling in the face and body, blood in the urine, incontinence, and recurring urinary tract infections.
In most cases, nephrotic syndrome can be treated with medications, including steroids and immunosuppressants. Patients with obstructive/developmental abnormalities of the urinary system may require surgical treatment. Dialysis and transplantation may be necessary in cases where kidney disease has progressed to kidney failure.